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Essays and Such

Irish Cultural Society

of San Antonio Texas

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Promoting Awareness of Irish Culture

Rebel Cork

Rebel Cork

In 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when
Perkin Warbeck, a pretender to the English throne, landed in the 
city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII
of England. The mayor of Cork and several important citizens went
with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were
all captured and executed. Cork's nickname of the 'rebel city'
originates in these events. 
The nickname was later applied to the whole county.

	In 1601 the decisive Battle of Kinsale took place in 
County Cork, which was to lead to English domination of Ireland 
for centuries. 

	Kinsale had been the scene of a landing of Spanish troops 
to help Irish rebels in the Nine Years War (1594–1603). When this
force was defeated, the rebel hopes for victory in the war were all
but ended. County Cork was officially created by a division of the
older County Desmond in 1606.

	In the 19th century, Cork was a centre for the Fenians and
for the constitutional nationalism of the Irish Parliamentary Party,
from 1910 that of the All-for-Ireland Party. The county was a 
hotbed of guerrilla activity during the Irish War of Independence
(1919–1921). Three Cork Brigades of the Irish Republican Army
operated in the county and another in the city. Prominent actions
included the Kilmichael Ambush in November 1920 and the Crossbarry
Ambush in March 1921. The activity of IRA flying columns, such as 
the one under Tom Barry in west Cork, was popularised in the Ken
Loach film The Wind That Shakes The Barley. The centre of Cork city
was razed to the ground by the British Black and Tans, in December
1920 as were many other towns and villages around the county.[1]
At this time many Cork residents moved to Liverpool, in England,
among them the ancestors of John Lennon and Paul McCartney.
 
	During the Irish Civil War (1922–23), most of the IRA 
units in Cork sided against the Anglo-Irish Treaty. From July to
August 1922 they held the city county as part of the so called
Munster Republic. However, Cork was taken by troops of the Irish 
Free State in August 1922 in the Irish Free State offensive, that
included both overland and seaborne attacks. For the remainder of 
the war, the county saw sporadic guerrilla fighting until the
Anti-Treaty side called a ceasefire and dumped their arms in May
1923. 

	Michael Collins, a key figure in the War of Independence, 
was born near Clonakilty and assassinated during the civil war in
Béal na Bláth, both in West Cork.
Source: Unknown